Next generation sequencing (NGS), massively parallel or deep sequencing are related terms that describe a DNA sequencing technology, which has revolutionized genomic research. Using NGS an entire human genome can be sequenced within a single day. In contrast, the previous Sanger sequencing technology, used to decipher the human genome, required over a decade to deliver the final draft. Although in genome research NGS has mostly superseded conventional Sanger sequencing, it has not yet translated into routine clinical practice. The aim of this article is to review the potential applications of NGS in pediatrics.