Medical test results are normally included in a person’s medical records, particularly if a doctor or other health care provider has ordered the test or has been consulted about the test results. Therefore, people considering genetic testing must understand that their results may become known to other people or organizations that have legitimate, legal access to their medical records, such as their insurance company or employer, if their employer provides the patient’s health insurance as a benefit.

However, legal protections are in place to prevent genetic discrimination, which would occur if insurance companies or employers were to treat people differently because they have a gene mutation that increases their risk of a disease such as cancer or because they have a strong family history of a disease such as cancer.

In 2008, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) became federal law for all U.S. residents. GINA prohibits discrimination based on genetic information in determining health insurance eligibility or rates and suitability for employment. However, GINA does not cover members of the military, and it does not apply to life insurance, disability insurance, or long-term care insurance. Some states have additional genetic nondiscrimination legislation that addresses the possibility of discrimination in those contexts.

In addition, because a person’s genetic information is considered one kind of health information, it is covered by the Privacy Rule of the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. The Privacy Rule requires that health care providers and others with medical record access protect the privacy of health information, sets limits on the use and release of health records, and empowers people to control certain uses and sharing of their health-related information. Many states also have laws to protect patient privacy and limit the release of genetic and other health information. The National Human Genome Research Institute Genetic Discrimination page includes links to more information about GINA, HIPAA, and other legislation related to genetic discrimination in insurance or employment.